PROBIOTICS: ROLE IN INFECTION CONTROL AND DISEASE TREATMENT

Abstract:

For the past 20 years probiotics have been playing an important role in treatment of lifestyle diseases in humans. Role of probiotics is potentially worthy for the cure of infections or decreasing the spell of infections. Fermented foods are modern-day products containing probiotics. Good bacteria in probiotics help in discontinuation of bad bacteria, enhance the mucosal activity, balancing the digestive system. The probiotic method employs a vital effect on the host’s health orders. Scope of research is in shaping the finest probiotic & its dosage for dealing with exclusive disease. Further work can be done on discovering new microbial species.


Introduction:

Probiotics refers to microbes which work for different parts of the body & are helpful to the system. They are a group of alive helpful bacteria or yeast that live in your body. They are part of daily food products like curd, cheese, beverages, fermented pickles, etc.


Probiotics as supplements:

The different forms of probiotics supplements are in the forms of drinks, pills, powders & solids. These probiotics are taken in the combination of probiotic and prebiotic which are termed synbiotics.

Infection control:

Probiotics can inhibit the development of some infectious diseases by generating substances that can reduce microbes. Prevention of pathogens & inhibits the establishment of pathogens by blocking the binding sites. It also helps by altering the environment and mucosal activity in the intestine which leads to infection control.


Disease treatment:

Probiotics are widely used for controlling diarrhea or reducing its effects. Diarrhea is caused due to imbalance in the body due to the effect of consuming antibiotics, water impurities & other unhygienic conditions. Effectiveness of recovery depends on dosage of the probiotics consumed. Crohn’s disease and bowel syndrome can also be treated by probiotic remedy. These treatments are under clinical trial marks showing mixed but helpful in preventing crohn’s diseases. Also helpful in keeping urogenital health. Lactobacilli is normally used for these types of urogenital problems.


Health and probiotics:
  • The microbes in probiotic food help to digest our food fast and completely leading to reduced load on the digestive system.

  • Food intake also decreases as all food ingested is properly digested & as metabolism gets improved. Protect the intestine by forming a thin film which cuts the interaction of harmful substances and intestinal lining.

  • Anything excess is harmful so the same implies here excess probiotics also harm in some or other ways.

  • Effect of probiotics can be reversed if the body consumes food improperly, excess alcohol drinking & varies according to age groups.

  • It also reduces the effect of allergic disorders. Helps in detoxing the human body.

Adverse effects of probiotics:
  • Upset stomach: increase gas, bloating, constipation, increase thirst.

  • Presence of biogenic amines in probiotics: excite CNS, increase or decrease blood flow which leads to headache.

  • Histamine levels: itching, watery eyes, running nose, redness.

  • Certain allergies are caused by dairy products which are major sources of probiotics.

  • Some bacteria in probiotics may grow further to their limit leading to infection.


Timeline:
  • Van Leewenhoeck in 1680’s observed yeast cells under his own build microscope [1].

  • In the late 1700’s Lavoisier described the process of conversion of sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide: alcohol fermentation [2].

  • Theodor Schwann & Charles cagniard-latour in 1840’s showed the relation of yeast cells growing and alcoholic fermentation [2].

  • In 1860’s French scientist Louis Pasteur based his studies was on anaerobic fermentation [3].

  • From the stool of breastfeed infants bifidobacterium was found by Henry Tissier in 1899 which led to the reason for diarrhea [4].

  • Russian scientist Ilya Ilyich Metchnikoff in the early 20th century linked good health and ingestion of yoghurt. Received Nobel prize in 1908 for medicine towards his contribution to immunology [2]

  • Eduard Buchner in 1907 received Nobel prize for proving enzyme in yeast which leads to fermentation in continuation to that in 1929 Arthur Harden and Hans Euler-Chelpin explained how these enzymes cause fermentation and received Nobel prize [2].

  • In the 1930s a Japanese scientist Minoru Shirota showed the bacteria live in the gut after digestion of food to help further. The bacteria he observed was Lactobacillus caesi. This led to YAKULT- the first fermented drink [2].

  • The probiotic word was coined by Kollath in 1953 the meaning was “for life” [5] [6].

  • In 1974 Parker said probiotics lead to intestinal microbial balance [7].

  • 2001: WHO/FAO defined probiotics [8]

  • 2010: Gibson defined the prebiotic & 1st human gut microbial gene catalogue [8].

  • 2015: Bindel’s definition of probiotics [8].

  • 2016: FDA defines LBP [8].


Kushan Chauhan

Dept. of Biochemistry and Biotechnology

St. Xavier's College, Ahmedabad


References:

  1. Huxley A (1871) Discourses: Biological & Geological (volumeVIII): Yeast. Collected Essays.

  2. Vijaya K Gogineni, Lee M Morrow, Philip J Gregory & Mark A Maleskar, “Probiotics: History and Evolution”, Journal of Infectious Diseases &Preventive Medicine, 2013, DOI: 10.4172/2329-8731.1000107.

  3. Pasteur L (1858) Mémoire sur la fermentation appelée lactique. Annales de chimie et de Physique . 52: 404-418

  4. Tissier H (1906) Traitement des infections intestinales par la méthode de la flore bactérienne de l’intestin. Crit Rev Soc Biol 60: 359-361.

  5. Hamilton-Miller JM, Gibson GR, Bruck W (2003) Some insights into the derivation and early uses of the word ‘probiotic’. Br J Nutr 90: 845.

  6. KOLLATH W (1953) [The increase of the diseases of civilization and their prevention]. Munch Med Wochenschr 95: 1260-1262.

  7. Parker RB (1974) the other half of the antibiotic story. Anim Nut Health 29:4.

  8. Rebecaebeca Martin, Philippe Langella, “Emerging Health Concepts in the Probiotics Field: Streamlining the Definitions”, frontiers in microbiology, 21 May 2019, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01047.




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